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Snake bite -- herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite

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"Several plant constituents like flavonoids, quinonoid, xanthene, polyphenols and terpenoids possesses protein binding and enzyme inhibiting properties and also inhibit snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities of both Viper and Cobra venom89. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, Clusia palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi83. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of Bothrops asper venom's hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.Plant-derived, aristolochic acid, indomethacin, quercetin, curcumin, tannic acid, and flavone exhibited inhibition, with aristolochic acid and quercetin completely inhibited the hyaluronidase enzyme activity90. Further, these inhibitors not only reduce the local tissue damage but also retard the easy diffusion of systemic toxins and hence increase survival time. Medicinally important herbal compounds (acalyphin, chlorogenic acid, stigmasterol, curcumin and tectoridin) were screened against Russell's viper PLA291. These compounds showed favorable interactions with the amino acid residues at the active site of Russell's viper PLA2, thereby substantiating their proven efficacy as anti-inflammatory compounds and as antidotes. An active compound (SNVNF) was isolated and purified from the whole seed extract of Strychnos nux vomica, which could effectively antagonise Daboia russellivenom induced lethality, haemorrhage, defibrinogenating, oedema, PLA2 enzyme activities and Naja kaouthia induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, PLA2 enzyme activities. Hexane extract of Curcuma longa rhizomes, ar-turmerone92 also inhibited the proliferation and the natural killer cell activity of human lymphocytes. This compound has anti lethal activity against venom of Crotalus durissimus terrificus. Moreover when it was injected in mice it showed anti- hemorrhagic activity against Bothrops jararaca venom."

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